You may not know the story of the Nobel Prize because it does not appear in the media so much, but the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine discovered an ion channel receptor that feels spicy (capsaicin). It was given to Professor Julius David of the University of California, San Francisco.
The previously unknown receptor for spiciness (capsaicin) is called TRPV1, and it was also found that if it is too irritating, it feels “painful”. This TRPV1 is also present in the trigeminal neuralgia model for pain, and it is thought that botulinum toxin preparations such as Botox suppress the reaction on the blood vessels and the surface membranes of the brain.
Furthermore, TRPV1 may be involved in the transmission of signals to the ganglia of the brain (thalamus) and spinal cord via receptors that detect changes in pressure, which are also suppressed by Clostridium botulinum toxin preparations. It has been suggested that it can be blocked by Botox.
We feel that the mechanism of Botox for migraine, which was not well understood until now, is being elucidated.